it comes to choosing a new furry companion, one important
consideration is the health of the dog. A low genetic coefficient of
inbreeding (COI) can play a significant role in ensuring that your
dog is healthy. In this article, we will discuss what coefficient of inbreeding is, why it
is important, and how a low genetic COI can help to ensure that your
dog is healthy.
coefficient of inbreeding is a measure of the degree of relatedness
between the parents of a dog. In other words it is a percentage of
the dog’s genetics that are identical because of inbreeding in its
important because it can help to predict the likelihood of health
problems in a dog. Dogs that are highly inbred are more likely to
have health problems, such as genetic disorders and predispositions
to certain diseases. By choosing a dog with a low coefficient of inbreeding, you can reduce
the likelihood of health problems and ensure that your dog is
general, a genetic eCOI of 10% or less is considered an acceptable
coefficient of inbreeding and is accepted as not inbred. By
contrast, a pedigree COI of less than 5% is usually considered
acceptable. Ideally, all dogs would have a coefficient of 0%, but
that is not realistic. For this reason, ethical breeders should be
actively working towards lowering the coefficient of inbreeding in
their dogs’ offspring! A high eCOI is a sign that the breeder has
not been responsible in their breeding practices, which puts the
puppies they sell at a significantly higher risk for developing
genetic health problems.
evaluating coefficient of inbreeding, the breed of the dog must also be considered. This
is because some dog breeds are more prone to genetic health problems
than other breeds, which is often because that breed has a very high
coefficient of inbreeding average! With a high coefficient of inbreeding, the potential
for health problems increases significantly.
whole, our breeds – Havanese and Maltese – are far less inbred
than many other dog breeds. As reported by the UK Kennel Club, the
Coefficient of Inbreeding is
2.7%. Embark Vet reports an average genetic coefficient of inbreeding of 12% in the
Havanese dogs they have tested. Likewise,
as reported by the UK Kennel Club, the
pedigree coefficient of inbreeding is
5.5%. Embark Vet reports an average genetic coefficient of inbreeding of 17% in the Maltese
dogs they have tested. A lower genetic
the risk of genetic health
in our dogs. For more information on COI, please visit:
Genetic Coefficient Of Inbreeding
A Beginner’s Guide To COI
COI helps to ensure that a dog is healthy in several ways:
are two ways to determine the COI of a dog. It can be calculated in
one of two ways: genetic testing to determine the exact COI or
pedigree calculations to determine an approximate COI.
most accurate way to determine the coefficient of inbreeding of a dog is to have it tested
with Embark Vet. This method is the most accurate because it
evaluates the dog’s actual genes and gives a percentage based on
those genes. Not only does Embark testing provide the coefficient of
inbreeding of the dog, but they also provide a Pair Predictor Tool
that allows you to calculate the estimated coefficient of inbreeding
(eCOI) of two tested dogs’ offspring.
second way to calculated coefficient of inbreeding in a dog is to
calculate it based on the ancestry of the dog using its pedigree. The
coefficient of inbreeding takes into account the number of generations between the dog and
its common ancestors, as well as the number of common ancestors that
the dog has. Determining the coefficient of inbreeding based on pedigree is not very
accurate compared to genetic testing.
important to remember that pedigree COIs will often be significantly
lower than the actual genetic coefficient of inbreeding of the dog. This is because
pedigree COIs are dependent on incomplete information whereas genetic
COIs are determined using a complete data set.
example, a breeder we know has a mama dog whose pedigree COI is 0%,
which is very impressive and considered not inbred at all. But when
the breeder had her dog tested with Embark Vet, her genetic COI was
actually 40%, which is very high! The breeder was shocked, because
she had assumed her dog was not inbred – based on her pedigree COI
- and that her puppies would therefore also not be inbred.
conclusion, a low coefficient of inbreeding is an important factor in ensuring that a dog
is healthy. By choosing a dog with a low coefficient of inbreeding, you can reduce the
likelihood of health problems, increase the diversity of your dog's
gene pool, improve its immunity, and ensure that it has better
physical characteristics and a longer life expectancy. If you are
considering adding a new furry companion to your family, make sure
your breeder follows a breeding approach that leads to strong
genetics and remember to consider the coefficient of inbreeding of the dog and specifically
select a dog with a low coefficient of inbreeding.
Each of our
coefficient of inbreeding is listed on their individual pages, along with their complete Embark genetic test results. We are completely transparent with our dogs' genetic testing, so you can examine the results for yourself.
We also include the expected coefficient of inbreeding (eCOI) of each litter on the
Upcoming Litters pages. To learn more about eCOIs, please visit
Why You Should Know The eCOI Of A Puppy Before You Buy It
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puppies for sale
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